You may wonder what is the purpose of this combination of series to parallel of both solar panels and batteries instead of simple series or parallel configuration. Sometimes it depends on the system needs such as increasing both charging voltage and battery storage capacity in Amp hour by connecting both solar panel and batteries in series to parallel combination. First we have to look each individual, that is series and parallel as follows.
Series connection of solar panels and batteries.
We may have to connect two solar panels or batteries by connecting their negative terminal which the sign of negative is -, to the positive terminal which the sign for positive is represented by + and vice versa. This way the two 6 volts, 12 volts or 24 volts 150W, 12.5 A solar panels and 12v, 100Ah batteries connected in series would have the following values.
Currents is I1 = I2 ..... In.
Such current is same in each branch
12.5Amp = 12.5Amp.
Current in series connected batteries
100Ah = 100A1
As voltage are additive in parallel connection, this way, V1 + V2 ..... + Vn
voltage will add up in parallel connection. Suppose we have 12 volts pv panels and batteries.
12V + 12V = 24V.
A solar panel or battery can be connected in parallel by connecting the negative terminal terminal of first one to the negative terminal of second one and positive terminal of second one to the positive terminal of first one. In simple words, similar terminals are connected by jumper wires. This way two 6V, 12V or 24V 150W, 12.5A solar panels and 12V, 100Ah batteries connected in parallel would havethe following quantities.
Current from solar panel to the charge controller. I1 + I2 ..... + In
12.5Amp + 12.5Amp = 25 A.
Similarly, Ah capacity of batteries in series would have.
100Ah + 100Ah = 200Ah.
Voltage for solar panel and batteries remains same in parallel connection.
V1 = V2 ..... = VV
Voltage remains the same for both pv panels and batteries.
Now lets look at both pv panels and batteries in series to parallel combination connection.The next part is interesting where we will utilize the maximum efficiency of 12V solar panels and batteries by arranging them in series to parallel combination to increase both the charging power from solar panels and storage capacity of batteries. This way, the more power will charge the battery quickly with extra power storage. We can use this system in tiny projects like 6 volts batteries and pv panels for 12V system or residential applications like 24V or 48V and so on.
Suppose we have the following rated devices.
1. 4 numbers of solar panels each having 12 volts, 150W, 12.5A.
2. 4 numbers of batteries each having 12V, 100Ah.
We need to connect them for an efficient 24V green energy system. To do this, connect the first 2 solar panels in series and do the same for the rest two solar panels. In simple words, make two pairs of two series connected solar panels. Now, connect these two sets of series connected pv panels in parallel. Do the same for batteries to arrange the same series to parallel connection of batteries. This way, you will get voltage and current in series parallel connection pv panels.
A set of two series connected solar panels will have 12V + 12V = 24V and 12.5A = 12.5A. If we connect these series pairs in parallel, you will have to get 24V = 24V from previous series 12V + 12V = 24V and now they are in parallel and 12.5A = 12.5A and now they are in parallel. You can see that we have increased the solar panel voltage from 12V to 24V as well as the charging power from 12.5A to 25A.
Voltage and current in series parallel connection of combination of batteries would have the same impact as mentioned above for solar panels, example the batteries bank voltage would increase from 12V to 24V and storage capacity from 100Ah to 200Ah.
Voltage in a set of two parallel connected batteries. 12V = 12V = 12V and 12.5A + 12.5A = 25A. If we connect these two sets of series connected batteries in parallel, we will get, 12V + 12V = 24V and 25A = 25A. You can see that we achieved 24V from 12V and 200Ah from 100Ah at once and it is according to our designed 24V system. So we can wire them through a solar charge controller and connect to the load equipment.
Pv panels and batteries in series parallel combo for 24V system.
The following simple wiring image shows that four 12V solar panels and 12V, 100Ah batteries are connected in series to parallel combination. Pv panels are connected to the batteries and direct current load through a charge controller. The 120V or 230V alternate current load is connected through inverter. The load can be powered up during normal sunshine or day time and operate via backup power stored in the batteries during shading or night. This whole 24V system will work automatically as we have used the uninterruptible power supply ups inverter such as we have used automatic ups wiring. It means no need to use additional auto or manual changeover or auto transfer switch for automatic operation.
Good to know.
● Series connection of batteries or solar panels will increase the level of voltage, example two 12V, 5A pv panel or 12V, 100A battery in series will provide 24V. Where current is the same in both devices such as 5A in panels and 100Ah in batteries.
● Parallel connection of pv panels and batteries will add up the current and ampere hour rating of battery storage capacity example two 12V, 5A pv panels in series will provide 12V, 10A. Similarly, two 12V, 100Ah batteries in parallel will provide 12V, 200Ah storage capacity. Where the voltage remain same in both equipment such as 12V.
Important to note.
Make sure the battery as well as solar panel voltage rating is the same while connecting them in series, parallel or series to parallel. In other words, a 6V battery should not be connected in series,parallel with 9V, 12V or other voltage rated batteries. Same rule is applicable to solar panels example, do not connect a 12V solar panel in series, parallel with 6V or 24V panel.
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