Although we see planes everyday, we can't stop wondering how such a big mass is able to move through the air, leave alone floating. Another thing that most people find confusing is how the pilot changes the direction of the plane. In this article, I am going to give you some enlightenment on the same.
If you have a good understanding of physics, this will be easier to understand. The wings of the plane contribute a lot to the lifting of the plane from ground level into the sky as well as propelling it. They are also responsible for change in direction of the plane. The wings are not as plane as you see them physically, they have a controllable part called the aerofoil.
Its direction determines whether the plane will take a right turn, left or remain unchanged. The aerofoil is controlled by the pilot and it affects the speed with which air flows over and below the plane wings. When the aerofoil is neither raised nor lowered but matching directly with the wings, wind speed over both wings is the same and thus the pressure too remains equal. This means there is no excess pressure to push the plane to a given direction.
When the pilot wants to turn, he will make the aerofoil on one of the wings depending on the direction of the turn to rise up. It in turn obstructs wind flowing over the wing reducing its speed and therefore lowering it pressure. This makes the higher pressure below the wing to push the plane up making it to tilt and as a result the plane makes a turn in the inner wing.
The aerofoil can be raised and lowered at different degrees which allows the pilot to turn the plane to any direction he wants. After the turn is complete, the aerofoil is returned to its original position and the plane flies straight.
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