The policies of the ZANU-PF government, led by Robert Mugabe, shocked the world, but were lauded equally after Mugabe's rise to power in 1994. Thousands of white Zimbabwean farmers would be forced to give up their land to more than one million landless black Zimbabweans under his draconian land ownership reforms. One of his key goals was to right the wrongs that the colonial government had done to the people.
South Africa and Zambia took in the vast bulk of the White exodus, although others returned to Europe or other European countries. Few survived, and those that did became enterprises in cities, leasing land from new owners who couldn't conduct significant farming.
10% of white farmers in the country owned 70% of the country's most arable land, which they inherited from the colonial past on the basis of race and received backing from the colonial regime.. People of color were evicted and their lands were transferred to White settlers who were flooding in by the hundreds of thousands.
"Our land was taken from us by force, and we will return it to you with force. You don't have the right to own the ancestral land of our parents "to the White farmers, Mugabe declared a victory.
As a result of its reliance on imported food, Zimbabwe is today a food-deficit country. Children will make up the majority of the 7.7 million people who will be food insecure by 2022.
Origina of Zimbabwe's food shortages
The food security crisis has been exacerbated by a variety of factors, including land seizures. Factors limiting adequate food access include: a high rate of poverty; the HIV/AIDS epidemic; limited employment opportunities; currency liquidity concerns; recurrent climate-induced shocks; and economic instability.
Observers believe that Zimbabwe's land reform program, which resulted in white commercial farmers losing their farms to landless blacks who are believed to lack farming skills and cash, is to blame for the country's change from a food exporting nation to a food importer. Although agriculture used to account for nearly 40% of the country's foreign currency earnings, it now only accounts for 10%.
Millions of acres of land are being stolen by corrupt and powerful government officials.
Massive land grabs by the Mugabe family and other powerful black government officials in Zimbabwe were made possible since the country's government lacked land distribution procedures to identify the country's actual landless. For the most part, they lacked the farming experience and capital that resource-rich White farmers had.
Farm machinery, fertile farmland, and other property belonging to white farmers and their black laborers were massacred by followers of ZANU-PF. As the government turned its back on the self-proclaimed war veterans and youth militia, they launched a series of attacks.
Former Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's land reforms had a negative impact.
Zimbabwe became a pariah on the international stage because of Mugabe's increasingly belligerent and authoritarian actions. Sanctions were implemented by the United States and the European Union in response to the violent land reform. Some of the sanctions have remained in place for some time now.
As a result of the upheaval, the economy, food production, and civil liberties all suffered. Africa's second-largest economy has collapsed to a size less than half that of 1980. A tenth of the population had to evacuate the country because to the country's unparalleled hyperinflation, with South Africa taking in many of them.
How Mugabe's economic and political mistakes are being corrected under the current leadership.
President Mnangagwa is attempting to right the wrongs of his predecessor by providing aid to evicted farmers. Following orders from the United States and the United Kingdom, the government is providing millions of dollars in compensation to white farmers who lost their land in the early 2000s. As a result, the government has imposed additional tariffs on residents in an effort to raise enough money to compensate White farmers.
There are ongoing efforts to find and expel foreign people whose farms were confiscated to make room for former White farmers, and Zimbabwe has offered to return the unused land they own to Blacks.
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