Canada is the northern half of North America, with the United States sharing just its land border. This is the world's longest binational land boundary, which has been negotiated through multiple treaties for more than a century. Canada is the United States' closest ally, and both countries' residents enjoy several shared benefits. Canada, on the other hand, shares a lengthy maritime border with Greenland and a short one with the French Oversea Islands.
The Vatican City State is ruled by the Pope and is an absolute monarchy, ecclesiastical, and elective theocracy (Bishop of Rome). The Vatican is an enclave within Rome, Italy, and is the world's smallest state by land area and population, with the Holy See as its sole ruler. The Vatican is the only country in the world that has good diplomatic relations with every other country.
Lesotho is a small landlocked country with a population of about 2 million people. South Africa has enslaved it. Lesotho is economically linked to South Africa, and its agricultural, cattle, industrial, mining, import, and export industries are heavily reliant on the SACU. Lesotho also heavily relies on the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), which has helped the country become the leading sub-Saharan African textile exporter to the United States.
The Republic of South Korea is located in East Asia, on the Korean Peninsula's southern tip. Along the Korean Demilitarized Zone, South Korea and North Korea share a land boundary. Following the Korean War, the two Koreas split, with the South becoming a democratic state and the North remaining communist. South Korea, on the other hand, is bordered on the sea by both China and Japan.
The Convention on Transit Trade of Land-locked States protects countries that have only one land border and are landlocked. The convention is a multilateral agreement that permits these countries to carry products to and from seaports while also allowing them to fly across their neighbors' airspace. According to the United Nations General Assembly agreement reached in 1965 and implemented in 1967, all landlocked and coastal states must ratify and domesticate this treaty. The coastal states (transit states) agree to establish favorable deals with landlocked states that desire to import and export commodities through the transit state's territory under the terms of the Convention. The transit governments make no distinction between the origin and destination of these products, and the goods are protected while in transit by international laws. Landlocked nations, on the other hand, are responsible for all costs paid by transit states during the monitoring and protection of the goods. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea grants enclaved countries accesses to the sea without paying transit fees and with reduced sea tariffs.
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