1. To cool off their body.
Even if they are not overheating, dogs will pant from exercise. It is much like the way humans breathe heavily when doing aerobic exercise. However, panting is also the primary way for dogs to cool themselves off because they do not sweat the way humans do. Though dogs do sweat a little bit from their paw pads, this cannot sufficiently cool them off. Instead, dogs cool themselves through their mouths.
Panting allows dogs to release heat and exchange it for cooler air. As you may imagine, this is not a very efficient process. It's even less efficient for short faced dogs like bulldogs or pugs. That is why dogs start to pant even when they get even a little bit warm. The hotter a dog becomes, the more intense the panting becomes. Sometimes, heavy panting is accompanied by drooling and redness of the tongue and gums.
Along with profound panting, warning signs of overheating include a bright red tongue and gums, wide eyes, weakness and elongated appearance of the tongue. Take steps to prevent overheating by keeping your dog cool and minimizing exposure to heat. Always take careful steps to keep your dog safe in hot weather. Never leave a dog alone in a car as cars can quickly get much hotter than the outside temperature. When in doubt, take your dog to the vet for medical attention.
When the outside air temperature is the same or higher than the puppy’s normal body temperature of, panting will not effectively cool off the puppy and can lead to heat stroke. Hot puppies may also resort to digging to scoop out cool places to rest.
2. Excitement or stress.
Panting may have nothing to do with body temperature. Many dogs will pant when they experience fear, anxiety or stress. Look at your dog's body language to help you determine if your dog is showing signs of fear or any other type of distress. Understanding the cause of fear or anxiety in your dog can help you minimize these incidents. If panting seems to be related to fear, anxiety or stress, it is best to remove your dog from the situation as soon as you can.
3. Some pant when playing.
Panting may simply be a sign of happiness in your dog. If so, the rest of your dog's body language will reflect this happy mood. The tail will usually be wagging in a happy way. Your dog's body and facial features will be somewhat relaxed. The eyes will appear bright and happy. Once things calm down, the panting will slow down and eventually stop. Continued mild panting with an open mouth and bright eyes is normal in a relaxed, content dog. In fact, many people consider this to be a doggie smile.
4. Pain or discomfort.
Dogs are pretty good at hiding pain and illness from humans. Some dogs try harder than others to hide their discomfort. However, once they reach a certain level of discomfort, they often cannot help but show signs, such as panting. Look for other signs of illness or pain such as vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, lethargy, limping, pacing and behavior changes. Contact your veterinarian if you suspect that your dog is sick or injured.
If at any time you see that panting is extremely intense and cannot be explained, you should get your dog to the nearest veterinarian immediately. It is always best to play it safe and let your vet check things out.
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