A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.Its a warship with a streamlined hull designed to operate completely submerged in the sea for long periods and equipped with periscope and armed with torpedos or missiles.Submarines took off during the 19th century and were adopted by several navies.They were initially used during WW1 (1914-1918).
With that said,the submarine is not black because of paint,but because of the type of panels that are used on it.
The outer surface of the submarine is made of anechoic rubber tiles or synthetic polymer tiles containing thousands of tiny voids.There function is two-fold
1) To absorb sound waves of active sonar,reducing and distorting the returning signal, there by making the submarine almost undectable to the enemy.
2)They help reduce the sounds the emitted from the submarine,most of all the diesel engines.This helps reduce the range at which it can be detected by passive sonar from the enemy.
3) The underside of the submarine is painted with a special black(neoprene) pain to deter the growth of bernacles attaching on the submarine. 4)The submarine is also black as it helps with camouflage.It becomes harder for air force to see them from an aerial view.
Other exceptions include;
There are also submarines that are painted green.Israelis,North Koreans,and Iranians paint theirs green.This is done because they mostly work in clear shallow coastal waters.
The green camouflages them against the greenweed covered bottom from aerial anti-submarine aircraft.These submarines are also small in size.lastly they are designed for very specific purpose.To sneak up to big ships for torpedo or missile range launch.Thank you.
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