1. The 1998 United States Embassy Bombing.
The attacks occurred on August 7, 1998. More than 200 people were killed in two explosions that took place in Dar-es-Salaam and Nairobi . Both attacks targeted the United States embassy.
The attacks, which were linked to local members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, brought Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, and their terrorist organization, al-Qaeda, to the attention of the U.S. public for the first time.
Consequently, the FBI placed Osama bin Laden on 10 most wanted fugitives.
The bombings are widely believed to have been revenge for U.S. involvement in the extradition, and alleged torture, of four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) who had been arrested in Albania for an alleged series of murders in Egypt in the two months prior to the attacks.
2. Garissa University College Attack.
It took place on 2 April 2015, when gunmen stormed the institution killing 147 people and injuring more than 60 people. The Al-Shabaab took responsibility of the attack.
Over 700 students were taken hostage by the gunmen. Muslims were being freed while those who identified as Christians were killed . The attack started at around 5:30 am by killing of two guards at the gate.
The shooters ordered the students to come out of their dormitories and told them to lie face down before being executed on the spot, one of the survivors reported.
The Kenya Defence Forces and other security personnel were then deployed at the University. The siege ended after 15 hours when four of the gunmen were shot down. They had explosives strapped around their bodies.
The fifth terrorist was able to detonate his suicide vest causing injuries to some of the Recce Squad commandos who had been deployed.
3. 2013 Westgate Mall Attacks
In 21 September 2013, four masked gunmen attacked the Westgate shopping mall, an upscale mall in Nairobi. The attack resulted in 71 total deaths, including 62 civilians, five Kenyan soldiers, and four attackers. Approximately 200 people were wounded.
Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for the attacks. It was a retribution for the deployment of Kenyan military in their homeland, Somalia. The Al-Shabaab were against 'Operation Linda Nchi' a coordinated military operation in southern Somalia that was launched against the group by the Somali Armed Forces and Kenya Defence Forces.
Ironically, Kenya was celebrating International Day of Peace when the attack took place. There had been warnings prior to the attacks. The siege lasted for more than 24 hours.
4. The 2002 Mombasa Attacks.
The 2002 Mombasa attacks was a two-pronged terrorist attack on 28 November 2002 in Mombasa against an Israeli-owned hotel and a plane belonging to Arkia Airlines.
An all-terrain vehicle crashed through a barrier outside the Paradise Hotel and blew up, killing 13 and injuring 80. At the same time, attackers fired two surface-to-air missiles at an Israeli charter plane.
The attacks were believed to be orchestrated by al-Qaeda operatives in Somalia in an attempt to disrupt the Israeli tourist industry on the African continent. Much speculation has occurred as to who the perpetrators are, but no complete list of suspects has been defined.
In 2003 Western countries advised all of their citizens against traveling to Kenya because of the terrorist threat. This negatively impacted Kenya's economy which was based mostly in the tourism industry.
5. 2014 Lamu Attacks.
On the night of 5–6 July 2014, heavily armed men attacked the Kenyan villages of Hindi in Lamu County and Gamba in Tana River County. At least 29 people were killed in the attacks.
The attackers also burned Government buildings and a church. They targeted men, tying their victims up before shooting them in the head or slashing their throats with a knife.
The attackers said the attack was revenge for the theft of Muslim lands. According to the Interior Ministry nine people were killed in the attack. Most of the victims were ethnic Kikuyus.
Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for the attacks.
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