1. Expanded Polystyrenepanel(EPS panels)
.Entails building homes by assembling ready made EPS panels sandwiched between a wire mesh that is sealed on both sides with concrete. The panels are made from light cellular plastic foam, a by-product of oil refining, which consists of mini spherical particles containing about 98% air.
Polystyrene houses can offer better insulation than homes made from timber or concrete as they do not rot and do not attract pests. A regular two-bedroom polystyrene house costs about Ksh735,670, while a similar stone structure can cost up to double the amount EPS panels.
2. 3D Volumetric technology
The 3D volumetric construction involves the manufacture of 3D units in the form of modules offsite which are then brought to the site and assembled module by module. Each modular unit manufactured are 3D units, hence this construction is called as 3D volumetric or modular construction.
The modules transportation can be transported as basic structure or a completed unit with all the internal and external finishes with services installed within it so the only part remaining in the assembly.
3. Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF) Technique
This technology uses twin-walled panels that are either polystyrene panels or employed blocks. These are built quickly to create the formwork as the wall of the buildings. The formwork that is made is filled with concrete.
This concrete is factory produced that have quality assurance so that a ready – mixed concrete. A higher level of thermal insulation is provided by expanded polystyrene blocks. The concrete core will provide good robustness and better sound insulation. They can be installed in wet conditions enabling early waterproofing of houses.
4.Prefabricated Housing Technology
Skeletons of houses are made in a factory before being transported to a construction site where an entire frame can be assembled. The material which is commonly used in the construction of such homes in Kenya is (EPS).
It costs approximately Ksh 1,111 per Square Metre including transport costs and cost of concrete plasterwork, compared to Ksh 1,550 when using natural quarry stones. When it comes to construction, a lot of time is saved by producing the material using machines resulting in a fast work rate.
5.Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF) technique
Insulating concrete formwork (ICF) is a construction technique that utilises lightweight and hollow insulation forms that fit together like giant Lego pieces to create a wall framework. The structure is then filled with high-quality concrete, which cures inside the ICFs to become a high-strength structure with remarkable sound and thermal insulation.
ICF structures offer huge savings in terms of construction timelines and labour, as well as the reduced need for skilled workers. They can be installed in wet conditions enabling early waterproofing of houses.
6.Precast foundation technique
This is an off site building technique in which foundations are pre-engineered and manufactured in a factory before being shipped to a site for installation.
The foundation assembled is mainly supported by concrete piles. During assembling, both the systems are connected together. These foundation systems help in increasing the productivity, increase quality and decrease the soil excavation needed.
As one of the most popular types of building technology, precast concrete construction allows construction to progress even in bad weather, thereby cutting project timelines while reducing site disruptions .
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