A negative results means that the fluid in that individual's sample does not contain HIV antigens or antibodies. It means a person has tested negative.
However, the negative results does not mean he or she has no HIV antigens. Instead, it could mean they took the test too early to detect the antigens or antibodies. It takes time for the body to create recognizable makers.
If an HIV test shows reactive or positive, it means that they have HIV antigens or antibodies in their blood.
Antigens means foreign substances from outside the body that provoked the body to react. HIV has antigens on their surface. These antigens provoke the body to produce the corresponding antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that attack the invaders thus keeping the body safe from infections.
On the other hand, antibody test measures the immune response to HIV infection. Samples mostly used is blood and some cases saliva.
The window period is the time between when a person contracts the virus and when antigens are many for a test to detect them.
If someone tests for HIV immediately after coming into contact with fluids contacting HIV, the results might not be accurate. This is because there are few of the antigens or antibodies.
Seroconversion is a term used by health care providers to refer to the time an individual has enough antibodies for accurate outcome.
Rapid HIV antibodies has a window period of about 3-12 weeks. Some people develop rapid makers to the virus while others may be slower.
If individual tests negative after recent HIV exposure, they should request a follow-up test at the end of the window period, which will confirm the initial test results.
Transmission of HIV
This is only through the fluids such as:
This virus enters the blood stream through injection, direct cuts, wounds or mucous membrane.
Inside the blood stream, the virus provoke the infection of white blood cells in the immune system to make more copies.
Misconception of HIV
-it can pass through air
-pass through unbroken skin.
-limiting the number of sexual partners
-using sterile needle for Injection
-taking HIV medications to prevent transmission to the fetus
-taking pre exposure medication if individually have higher risk of infection
-using condoms and other barrier methods.
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