There are a few.
Here's one you can try to find out for yourself. Extend your arm like in the image below, touch your thumb and little finger and watch. You may or may not see a tendon sticking out. The tendon is connected to the palmaris longus (palmaris longus muscle) , which is a muscle that some of us have for no real reason.
It's a mutation, a percentage of the population (I think it's 10-15%) won't see that tendon. I still have it, in this area I'm not a mutant. It is believed to have once been useful for climbing for species similar to lemurs or monkeys that use their arms extensively. For us, it has no apparent use and is a favorite of surgeons for reconstructive surgery.
Another more famous example is lactose intolerance . Milk is very nutritious, but we cannot always drink it beyond childhood. A mutation allowed us to continue drinking it, we mutated to become lactose tolerant. In the west, it is a very common mutation, in the east, not so much. This is evolution at work before your eyes.
It could be that in a few generations the East will catch up and lactose tolerance will become the norm. But changes in the environment or supply could cause the opposite and lactose tolerance could remain low. It is difficult to predict the future.
I think they correspond very well to the mutations that are currently occurring in humans. We also have a lot of vestigial parts. These are organs, muscles, or features, which were once a benefit but have since lost their function. We still have them, but they seem to be slowly but surely disappearing.
The first obvious mutation is that we still have wisdom teeth that don't fit in our shrinking jawbone. Your appendix is another. A little less well known is goosebumps, our body trying to lift hairs that aren't present.
We also have ear muscles which are completely useless. Try it, can you wiggle your ears? Did it help you hear better? Probably not. But many mammals use these muscles to orient their ears to a sound. When we hear a sound, the muscles always try to orient the ears, but in vain.
And this little left behind? You've probably seen it often in the mirror. It's still somewhat useful for drainage and movement, but it used to be a third eyelid.
Alright, one last. Vomeronasal organ ( Vomeronasal organ - Wikipedia) is a structure located in the nose that mammals primarily use to sniff out a mate. It detects pheromones, at least in the animals that have linked it to the brain.
Whether humans have it is up for debate, although numerous studies report finding this structure. It is a little more conclusive to note that in humans, it is no longer functional, no signal is sent to the brain, it remains there, useless. At some point in our evolution, we probably used it the same way mammals use it today, to detect a mate. But now we have Tinder for that, so good riddance.
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