Urine is made by the kidneys' action of filtering blood and removing wastes. The normal rate is about 120-125 ml/minute for a person that is not dehydrated or diabetic.
During the day as the brain is active, it breaks down a substance called Adenosine Triphosphate. This molecule is responsible for the energy our brain cells consume. A by-product called adenosine, is produced. Adenosine levels build up during the day till their peak levels as the day ends. They bind to the Adenosine receptors to exert their action.
In the brain, they cause depression hence one feels sleepy. The adenosine receptors are also found within the heart muscle cells. Activation of this receptors reduces the heart activity. There is less blood pumped and the rate of pumping is also reduced. The rate of kidney filtration and urine formation is significantly reduced. The net effect is delayed urine formation therefore less urination.
In the morning, adenosine gets weared off and unbinds to its receptors. The brain now gets active and also the heart rhythim and blood filtration. The cycle proceeds.
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