Saudi Arabia is among the largest countries in the world and its land area covers approximately 2,150,000 km². It is also the only country that borders the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea coasts. The country is located in semi-arid areas thus they don't have permanent rivers flowing. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that does not have permanent rivers. However, the country has several wadis. A wadi is a valley of a stream in regions of southwestern Asia and northern Africa. They are usually dry except during the rainy season when they are filled with rainy water and form an oasis.
Saudi Arabia uses freshwater despite the country lacking permanent water bodies. About half of the countries drinking water comes from desalination plants. Most of this water is found in the coastal region. It also obtains about 40 percent of its water from underground sources. The remainder of the water comes from surface water and is particularly found in the southwest. The government provides the residents with free drinking water. The government mainly depends on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure such as desalination and wastewater treatment plants.
However, the government is also facing a lot of challenges in the water sector. One of the challenges that the country is facing is a lack of proper continuity of supply of fresh water. In addition to that, the country has weak institutional governance. The government has also achieved a lot in the water sector. They have managed to increase the amount of water desalination. The government has also ensured that all the citizens are supplied with fresh water for drinking. Apart from that, they have expanded wastewater treatment plants. Water recovered from these waste treatment plants is used for irrigation purposes in urban green spaces.
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