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Linguistic Features in grammar

 

           Linguistic (lexico-grammatical) features are comprehensive in definition, having varied contexts of use, such as translation that allows for word form to be translated into a form that shows more details of language functions' specifics. Scholars use conventional authority to present language as a form of verbal and non-verbal revolving around several linguistic features displaying phonetics, morphology, semantics, and syntax. They develop into meaning forms of the language as linguistic features. Most of which is dialectology, where dialect atlases or maps are made by scholars seeking to understand languages better among its variant use among the different social classes ("Linguistic Feature - an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics"). Linguistic feature differs from shallow features of language in their representation of author's linguistic, grammatical features of writing, which rather would, than consider the well-identified bag of words model, interpretively opts for conventional use of dialect analysis of the literature as part of impressionistic transcriptions, famous before technological development in recording services, and the audio recordings of the data under analysis in the variant data analysis of the evolved language. GIS mapping in the developed audio records and geo-tags features of the linguistic study has been eased with the online availability of data from all over the world, such as the literature in the newspaper article of a TV cooking programme “Bake Off” titled I’ve never seen rage like it! How Bake Off lost its way”. In which the language was varied among the contestants, their art, judges, and the environment in the tent, a blend whose analysis, despite being from the article was derived from the whole scenario dumbed a failure, which will need an understanding of all the participants, but in particular, the language used by the author of the article and our understanding of his language operations of the linguistic features. The following 17 sequential linguistic features will conclusively highlight the article on the failure of the bake-off; moreover, over provisions of the brief summary of the ongoing on the TV show, the language use will reveal how much of the show as a failure, in what way, whose idea it was to label it a failure, and the authors theme on all the aspects highlighted as per his limited opinion, or as borrowed from the critics of the show in accordance to the judgments, only a clear cut analysis will show the dominance of some of the aspects over the over and consequentially reveal the hidden message in context to the bake-off context and its stipulated judgments (“Linguistic Feature - an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics”).

Inflectional Verb Suffix

An inflectional change signals grammatical function in not only verbs, but the adjectives, nouns, adverbs, and pronouns in the sense of, for instance verb tenses and noun plurals, which consequentially changes the sentence structure, as would affixes, and in this case, suffixes attached to verbs would the sentence structure, if not the semantics or pragmatics. In verbs, the suffixes inflected varied word forms; signalling added grammar information in the absence of meaning change, typical of the inflectional (verb) suffixes to have grammatical meaning only and lacking preceding capabilities if accompanied by a derived suffix word form (“Analyzing Grammar in Context”). Derivational suffixes form newly constructed word forms through affixes adoption, both the suffixes and prefixes, in the English language (“Analyzing Grammar in Context”). Pulls, expressions, realize, needs, sprinkling, feels, lacking, bakers, disappointing, baking, leaving, deflated, themes, becoming, confused, festivals, bonfires, carnivals, reverting, years, lifting, saying, missing, contestants, helping, moments, runs, hands, during, judging, and remembered are forms of inflectional verb suffixes uses in the literature on the bake-off. The listed words come in the forms of present-tense inflexions (–s), past-tense inflexion (–ed), past-participle inflexion (-en), and present-participle inflexion (-ing) (“Analyzing Grammar in Context”), (“Types of English Affixes: Derivational and Inflectional Prefixes and Suffixes”).


Neologism is a new phrase or word not yet in common use by most writers and speakers. Still, as time passes, some words are adopted into the language, seizing to be a neologism, while others remain as such or miss from the language altogether. A variety of methods are used in the creation of the new words depending on creative need; for instance, Portmanteaus or Blend Words involves blending two words to creating a single new word, derived neologism pertains to the use of ancient Latin, and Greek phrases naturalized to match the language, which in this case is English, and transferred words that are on a different level of neologism encompassed as words from another language and used in a form that is adjusted to suit the English language (“Neologism: Definition and Examples | LiteraryTerms.net”). Whatevs is an example of Portmanteaus or Blend word neologism.

Polysemy

Polysemy is one major issue encountered by semanticists, and sometimes they prefer to refer to it as “ambiguity”. Polysemy is difficult to determine due to the words ability to have several senses, which, unlike meaning, coupled with contextual changes make the polysomic word all the difficult to define without prior agreements to show the requirements of “meaning” as opposed to “sense”. It now considered an essential and intrinsic feature of all-natural languages rather than an anomaly, gaining renewed importance in automatic translation. Ambiguity rarely occurs in discourse due to contextual elements but remains a problem in automated comprehension. The lack of more straightforward methods or methods in identifying the senses differences in a word is a conclusion made by lexicographers and researchers in corpus linguistics and cognitive semantics. Still, others question the existence of polysemy, jeopardizing any standing theory and further studies (Lopukhina et al., “The Mental Representation of Polysemy across Word Classes”).

It’s important to note, at this point that the whole article is ambiguous, the title screams disaster, and the introduction is rather nice and identifies, appreciates and acknowledges personalities on an individual level siting on surface criticism. The body paragraph is includes the some aspects of failure, but not notable as such, while the conclusion spells out the two other paragraphs, citing both the failures, with as single statement or two, i.e. “thank goodness”, and “The contestants are constantly helping each other out – and not just in those huge moments when someone hellishly runs out of time” claiming a need for correction and not a disaster of the whole series of the show (Scott)

Collocation

Collocation is the term for two terms that go together, while on the other hand, other combinations just sound wrong; for this reason, they have to learn to be recognized and used appropriately. For instance, we say verb + plus: commit suicide and not undertake suicide (“Collocations | Vocabulary | EnglishClub”). Bake off, as used in the text, imply completion by elimination. There is also the neologism word “whatevs”, from whatever, expression levels of not caring.

Idiomatic Expression

Idiomatic expressions are informal expression type having different meanings from the words used in the expression. Hold your horses; take, for example, doesn’t mean holding the literal horses in your hands; it means taking caution in the proceeding actions (“Idiomatic Expressions”).

Non-Standard lexical Variation

Non Lexical variations occur for various reasons and occur in different extents and combination precision unique to each word. They are mostly retentions from archaic language or dialectal traits from the times of overseas settlements and relocations. A variety of studies can establish, through lexical surveys, older and newer variety connections and background languages (“Non-Standard Features in Varieties of English”).

Non-Standard Grammatical Variation

Non-Standard grammatical Variation is highly due to regional voices and dialects that over time lead to the adoption of words and use differently among the same language speakers. For instance verb "to be" used about the past among the speakers across England demonstrates the local vernacular forms (“Regional Voices: Non-Standard Grammar”). The use of verbs is a great area of studying dialects differences in word use and word choices .In the news articles case, we shall observe the difference in the use of dialects under “A number of present-day English dialects have non-standard simple past tense forms such as come, done, known and seen or seed, where Standard English prefers came, did, knew and saw. Some dialects also have past participle constructions such as I've went, I've gave, I've ran and I've telled (often pronounced with a <t> sound as the final consonant), where Standard English requires I've gone, I've given, I've run and I've told. But the verb 'to be' shows the greatest variation” (“Regional Voices: Non-Standard Grammar”). The article seems to lay more on the latter, the North versus south arguments bring out that simple past tense is evident in most English verbs, unmarked for person, such went, saw, played, did, but the verb “to be” on the other hand of consideration possess two simple past forms in Standard English, i.e. “you, we, they were” and the singular forms “I, he, she, it was”, which are only distinguished by the use special case “you” in commonality use of “was” and “were” (“Regional Voices: Non-Standard Grammar”).

Selective Demonstrative Reference

These are used to indicate an event, object, or person position concerning the speaker; it could be psychological or physical distance or closeness.  The near demonstratives in events refer to the present, while the far refers to the past. For example, the use of here and there (“Demonstratives”).  In the text, there, these, then, here, and this are used; the latter are indicators of close proximity (Scott).

Antonym

Antonym means the opposite of a given word or phrase, for example, from the given extract, never, a negation of the word ever (Scott)

Ellipsis

Ellipsis grammatically is a word and, as such, can be applied in two ways, in its symbolic form, usually as three dots (…). It can also be stylistic when a word is omitted from a sentence and the grammatical syntax. Still, the meaning is never the less retained wholly (“Ellipsis: Definition and Examples | LiteraryTerms.net”).

 Modal Verb

Modal verbs are easier to understand when they are taught depending on their use; they are functionally combined with other verbs to indicate ability, obligation and possibility. They include may, shall, could, can, will, should, and might, to name just a few (“What Are Modal Verbs?”).

Interpersonal Grammatical Metaphor

“Grammatical metaphor (ideational metaphor and interpersonal metaphor as sub-categories) “leads to an expansion of the meaning potential: by creating new patterns of structural realization, it opens up new systemic domains of meaning”” (Bingjun, 167). Despite their readiness in applications to disciplines of interaction-oriented, interpersonal grammatical metaphors lack the solid insight of identification, for instance, of interpersonal metaphors of the mood in particular (Bingjun, 168). It also identifies as a modality metaphor. However, the mood metaphor shallows the definitions, construe mostly in spoken language, while the other is more inherent in written language. Mood metaphors indicate optionally or opted for incongruent mood in the grammatical setting. As an illustration, speech functions in command might be realized commands, for example, get up, in the imperative mood in spoken speech is understood better or less than written forms (Devrim).

Marked Theme and Unmarked Themes

In essence, the marked themes, if it is the subject or mapped onto the presented subject in the phrases in other words, then if in declarative clauses, it is unmarked. Marked themes in this sense indicate less frequency or appear as more unusual; it could be a compliment or a prepositional phrase functioning as a theme or not, or as an adverb phrase.

Existential Process

This process only represents things or something that happens or exists (Halliday, 2004, p. 256). Most of the classifications' representations fall under verbs, which apparently are the inherent founders of all sentence structures. The newspaper article is full of attributive verbs explaining the disaster that the narrator wishes to express, but seamlessly let it go with the hope of better episodes (Scott)

Verbal Process with the Associated Sayer and Verbiage

The associations of a literature narrative and his use of verbs highlighting his region and dialect and the narrator's age are also noted accordingly due to the ease and non-ease of slang words and other vocabulary indicating his personality.  The narrator is clearly from the southern regions of English standard user, due to his use of the verb “to be”, he is also in touch with his feminine side due to his use of slang words, for instance, “ oh whatevs” use in expressing attitudes, and his admiration of the unity, love and assistance on all levels of the show . Religious aspects also unfold in his reading by the use of references to hell, dread, death, thanks goodness ,and his expression of a better show despite the minimal errors (Scott)

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